Please perform the clear cache and clear data of the Message app.
Go to Settings> Apps> Select the Message app> Storage> Clear cache and Clear data.
Important: Clearing the data will reset the app to factory default settings. Any personal settings saved on the app will be removed.
Then, I suggest you to verify your phone in Safemode and check if it works fine.
Please follow the below steps to verify the phone in a safe mode.
Safe mode to check if added apps are causing problems. This mode loads only basic system software and it disables third-party applications.
Here are the steps for Safe mode:
1. After turning off the phone, turn it on.
2. Once the Samsung logo has started, press and hold the volume down button.
3. When the home screen appears, the safe mode is displayed in the lower-left corner of the screen.
How to deactivate safe mode.
1. Press and hold the power button.
2. Tap Restart.